Polycystic kidney disease occurs when clusters of cysts – benign round lesions varying in size that contain a watery fluid – develop and grow within the kidneys. Complications include high blood pressure, chronic kidney failure, and the development of cysts in other areas, including the liver and pancreas. With chronic kidney failure, the kidneys become unable to filter excess fluid and waste from the blood. The body’s chemical balance is altered. A condition called uremia may develop as the accumulation of wastes builds to toxic levels. Symptoms of kidney failure and uremia include itching, nausea, and appetite loss. As kidney function progressively decreases, patients may develop congestive heart failure, weak bones, stomach ulcers, and nervous system damage. Treatment centers around controlling symptoms.
P.S. Having one or two benign kidney cysts is common and does not mean a person has polycystic kidney disease.